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bileve_qt_paper_3_lung_function_traits_concentric_circos

Breathtaking genes: A ‘Circos’ plot depicting how chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become a global concern – the 3rd biggest killer, defined by poor lung function. Our work shows that many parts of our DNA play a role in our lung health. Peaks in red are newly discovered regions, and the blue ones were previously identified by other groups. Millions of genetic variants from tens of thousands of individuals were analysed in this study. The identified genes will help us understand why some of us have better lung function, and lead to the identification of drug targets of potential relevance to COPD.

A press release was issued by the University of Leicester Press Office on 6 February 2017 about a study that I was also heavily involved in (please click on links below for details):

“Breakthrough advance offers the potential to defuse a ‘ticking timebomb’ for serious lung disease, including for over 1 billion smokers worldwide (source: World lung health study allows scientists to predict your chance of developing deadly disease — University of Leicester)”

 

The study has received a lot of attention from the media, with articles appearing in large media outlets such as BBC News, The Independent and MSN News. If you’re interested in the details, please read the paper published in Nature Genetics (Wain LV et al, Published online 6th Feb 2017. Genome-wide association analyses for lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identify new loci and potential druggable targets. doi:10.1038/ng.3787)

If interested in reading about the area of Genetic Epidemiology itself, please have a look at my (previously published) blog post about the matter: Searching for “Breath taking” genes. Literally!

Details on Circos plot* (above): FEV1: Forced expiratory lung volume in 1 second; FVC: Forced lung volume capacity; FEV1/FVC: the ratio of the two measurements. Labels in the outer circle show the name of the nearest gene to the newly identified (red) variants. X-axis: Genomic position of variant in genome (chromosome number in the outer circle), Y-axis: Statistical significance of variant in this study (higher the peak the greater the significance).

 

*The figure is a more artistic version of Figure 1 (Manhattan plot) in the above mentioned academic paper. It did not make it into the final manuscript published in Nature Genetics (6th Feb 2017) as it was found to be “confusing” by one of the reviewers – and the editor agreed. 😦 However, the plot was shortlisted (title: Breathtaking genes) and displayed in the Images of Research exhibition (9th Feb 2017) organised by the University of Leicester. 😉

nazi-rally

Nazi mitingleri – binlerce insan zalim bir liderin büyüsüne kapılmış, milyonlarca masum insana zulmetmek için can atıyorlar! Sonunda hem dünyada, hem ahiretde bedelini ödediler; ödeyecekler! Hitler’in de başta ülkesine büyük hizmetleri olmuştu (en ünlüsü de otoban yapmasıdır)… Sonrasında ülkesini büyük felakete sürükledi; “millet”in izniyle! Gafletden kurtulup, tarihten ders almalı ve zulüm ile abad olanın (hem dunyada, hem ahiretde) ahirinin berbad olacagını bir kez daha hatırlamalıyız!

Oy istediklerinin gozünü boyama adına, bu sözü (“Millet ne isterse o!”) her popülist/faşist/zalim lider kullanmış; bugün de sık sık kullanılıyor. Ve çokta işe yarıyor… Bu halkın çogunun “müslüman” (görünümlü) yada gayri-müslim olmasıyla da alakalı degil… Oncelikle insan olmasıyla; hak-hukuk-kanuna saygı duymasıyla; Allah’tan korkmasıyla alakalı! Yada bunların hiç birinin öneminin olmamasıyla…

Ne yazık ki bu söz ilk bakışta çok sorunlu degilmiş gibi gözukse de, aslında bir çok zulmün kaynagıdır. Azgın topluluk/çogunlukların, kendinden olmayanlara eziyet edilmesi için verdigi bir “izin”dir…

Bilmeyenler için “millet”in ne istedigini ben söyleyeyim:

  • Millet çapsız ogluna masa başı (ve bol maaşlı) iş istiyor!
  • Millet oturdugu yerden bedava kömür-şeker-makarna gelmesini istiyor! (Bedava Akbilde fena olmaz ama…)
  • Millet KPSS’den yetersiz puan almasına ragmen memur olarak atanmak ve devlete “kapak atmak” istiyor! (Geçen herkes kesin soruları çalmıştır(!)…)
  • Zenginin ve/ya sevmedigi insanların mallarının üzerine çökülüp, kendisine dagıtılmasını ve bedavadan (lüks) bir hayat yaşamak istiyor!
  • Diger insanların başarısı ve emeklerinin görmezlikten gelinip, sadece kendisinin (ve kendi gibilerin) başlar üzerinde taşınmasını istiyor!
  • Vatanı-milleti bırakın, kendisine dahi faydası olmamasına ragmen, “kahraman” gibi görülmek istiyor! Sevmedigi, haset/nefret ettigi insanlara “vatan haini” demek istiyor! Ulkeyi babasının malı gibi kullanıp, başkalarına yaşama hakkı dahi bırakmamak istiyor!
  • Gelişmiş dünyada ülkemizin alay konusu olmasına ragmen, destekledigi despotun “Ey Amerika-Israil-Almanya!” diye bögürdügünde, dünyanın korkudan titredigini (yalancı-tetikçi medyasından) okuyup/duyup gururlanmak istiyor!
  • Herhangi bir bilim/teknoloji üretmemesine ragmen, diger ülkeleri fethetmek ve dünyayı kana bulamak istiyor! (Ama başkalarının evladı ölsün!)
  • Hiç bir kitap okumamasına ragmen, fikirlerinin herkesinkinden fazla önemsenmesini istiyor! Kendi gibi düşünmeyen uzmanlara “okumuşsun ama adam olamamışsın!” demek istiyor!
  • Her türlü günahı işlemesine, zekatını vermemesine, namaz dahi kılmamasına ragmen, kendisine “ümmetin lideri” ünvanı verilmesini istiyor! (Turkiye’de devamlı namaz kılma oranlarına bakın; birde “Osmanlı geri dönüyor!” diyenlerinkine)

6-7 Eylül olayları: Türkiye’deki Ermenilerin malını yagmalamaya çalışan “müslüman” halkımız! Hukuk/adaletin, serbest medyanın, güçler ayrılıgının olmadıgı ülkelerde “millet”in dedigini yapamazsın; yapmamalısın! Bin kişinin keyfi için dahi, bir kişiye zulüm edemezsin! Edersen, sonuçlarına katlanırsın! Allah’a hesap veremezsin!

Bu yüzden:

  • Insanların işlerinden kovulmasını dört gözle bekliyorlar! (Kovulanların kimlerden oldugu farketmez; kendisinden olmasında…)
  • Yüzlerce/binlerce insana iş veren (Boydak, Ipek grubu gibi) insanların malı gasp edildiginde sevinç çıglıkları atıyorlar!
  • Insanlar haksız yere işlerinden/hapse atıldıgında, “acaba yerlerine biz geçermiyiz?” diye (Agustos 2016 KHK kararından sonra da oldugu gibi) listeleri kontrol ediyorlar!
  • Onlarca uzman (hem Türkiye’ye, hem oradaki masumlara) zararları konusunda uyarmasına ragmen, “Suriye’yi fethetmeye gidiyoruz!” dendiginde gururdan gögüslerini kabartıyorlar!
  • “Millet ne isterse o!” denip kendisi gibi düşünmeyen kesimlere her türlü zulüm yapıldıgında, “hiç acımayın; daha da beter olsunlar!” deyip, zevkten dört köşe oluyorlar!

Maalesef “millet” dedikleri insanların ne ahlaki, ne etik, ne dini, ne adil, ne de demokratik bir duruşu var. Kişisel menfaatlerine dokunulmadıgı sürece “dünya yanmış, umrumda mı?” modundalar… Başarılı ve/ya zengin insanlara karşı eziklik (aşagılık kompleksi) ve hasetlerini, (kahve agzıyla konuşarak, kışkırtıcı) söylemleriyle tatmin/izale eden (kendileri gibi) bir lider buldukları için de ona dört kolla sarılıyorlar! “Milletin adamı”, “Reis”, “Başkomutan”, “Sultan/Padişah” gibi tabirleri kullanarak da bunu açıkça gösteriyorlar.

Eskinin saf ve temiz “Anadolu insanı”, haram yemenin ve yaşamadıkları dinin edebiyatını yapmanın tadını aldı; yalakalıgın/köpekligin nasılda kolayca insanı makam/imkan sahibi yapabilecegini gördü.

Bu sayede çok kısa sürede birde bakmışsın, Allah’a hesap verecegini unutmuş, hak/hukuk tanımaz, haramzade, vicdansız, cahil ve azgın bir millet olmuşuz! Allah bunun hesabını (hem dünyada, hem ahiretde) sorar elbet! Cok uyaran oldu; ben de uyarıyorum. Allah’tan korkun ve zulümlerinizi durdurun! Ve bir daha dönmemek üzere tövbe edin…

Son olarak: zalim benden, ailemden ve/yada benim milletimden dahi olsa, zulmünü yüzüne çarparım. Kendi çapım yettigince çarpmaya da inş. devam edecegim!

PS: Genelledigimin farkındayım; zaten söylediklerim geneledir… Fakat haksızmıyım? “Surada haksızsın” deyin; hemen silecegim o kısmı (eski yazılarım için de geçerli)…

Bu konuyla paralellikler içeren diger yazılarıma da göz atabilirsiniz: Eziklik semptomatolojisi ve Epidemik cehalet

PPS: 15 Temmuz “darbe/saldırı”sını kimler planladıysa, kimler bilerek yer aldıysa, kimler insanların üzerine ateş açtıysa, (her şeyi gören) Allah belasını versin; verecektir de! Belgeleriyle ortaya çıksın, yüzlerine de hep beraber tükürelim!

Fakat sonrasında kimler bu olayların üzerine gitmek isteyen gazetecileri, araştırmacıları, yazarları, hukukçuları, akademisyenleri engellediyse, bunların da ortaya çıkarılması ve (suçun şahsiligi unutulmadan) en agır şekilde cezalandırılması gerekir! Cok büyük bir ihanet var ortada; bu kesin! Fakat, saglıklı bilgi alınmaması için birileri ellerinden geleni yapıyor; bu da kesin! Elbet Allah herşeyi görüyor; ve gerçekler birgün ortaya çıkacak!

The University of Bristol News webpage on the 16th of August 2016. I feel privileged to have had the chance to be the face of the university in an important announcement such as this.

The University of Bristol News webpage on the 16th of August 2016. I feel privileged to have had the chance to be the face of the university in an important announcement such as this.

The University of Bristol has been ranked as 8th in the UK and has risen nine places to 57th in the world in the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) – its highest ranking in 13 years. ARWU, considered as one of the leading international league tables, assesses more than 1,200 universities every year using six measures and publishes data on the best 500.

For details, go to the University of Bristol News page (link).

The photo used in the news article was shot last year (2015) when I was a PhD student at the University of Bristol – as part of a series of ‘photo shoot’s for the postgraduate prospectus.

I had previously also modelled for the University of Leicester undergraduate prospectus (details can be found here).

635818446043317487-1207666941_Malala-Quote-10_10-Twitter

It was my dream…
My dream as a child…

That when I grow up,
I would help solve the mysteries of the universe;
Inspire youngsters to become selfless individuals;
Discover that Syrian kid who would cure cancer;
Help that Gazan who would bring peace to the world;
And stand side-by-side with the African to make hunger a thing of the past…

But I’ve lost contact;
And my dreams, side-tracked…

Then my conscience says:
Yes! Seize the day!
But, in another way…
Yes! You only live once!
That’s life!
Doesn’t care about what one wants…

Then again; although some choose to leave a legacy;
Most, like me, will disappear into vanity…

smoking-infographic_cancer_research_uk

We now know that, through studies carried out by many natural scientists over decades, smoking is a (considerable) risk factor for many cancers and respiratory diseases; but the public ignore these findings and keep smoking, which is where social scientists can help facilitate in getting the message across. Just one example of where the social sciences can have a massive (positive) impact on society. Image taken from stopcancer.support

Scientists focus relentlessly on the future. Once a fact is firmly established, the circuitous path that led to its discovery is seen as a distraction.” – Eric Lander in the Cell journal (Jan 2016)

 

As scientists in the ‘natural’ sciences (e.g. genetics, physics, chemistry, geology), we have to make observations in the real world and think of hypotheses and models to make sense of it all. To test our hypotheses, we then have to collect (sufficient amounts of) data and see if the data collected fit the results that our proposed model predicted. Our hypotheses could be described as our ‘prejudice’ towards the data. However we then have to try and counteract (and hopefully eliminate) our biases towards the data by performing well-designed experiments. If the results backup our predictions, we of course become (very!) happy and try to (replicate and then) publish our results. Even then (i.e. after a paper has been submitted to a journal) there is a lot left to do as the publication process is a long-winded one with many rounds of ‘peer-reviewing’ (an important quality control mechanism), where we have to reply fully to all the questions, suggestions and concerns the reviewers throw at us about the importance of the results, reliability of the data, the methods used, and the language of the manuscript submitted (e.g. are the results presented in an easy-to-understand way, are we over-sensationalising the results?). If all goes well, the published results from the analyses can help us (as the research community) understand the mechanisms behind the phenomenon analysed (e.g. biological pathways relating to disease, underlying mechanism of a new technology) and provide a solid foundation for other scientists to take the work forward.

If the results are not what we expected, a true scientist also feels fortunate and becomes more driven as a new challenge has now been set, igniting the curious side of the scientist; and strives to understand if anything may have gone wrong with the analysis or that whether the hypothesis was wrong. A (natural) scientist who is conscious and aware of the evolution and history of science knows that many discoveries have been made through ‘happy accidents’ (e.g. penicillin, x-ray scan, microwave oven, post-it notes) since it is in the nature of science to be serendipitous; and that a wrong hypothesis and/or an unexpected result can also lead to a breakthrough. Hopefully without losing any of our excitement, we go back to square one and start off with a brand new hypothesis (NB: the research paradigm in some fields is also changing, with ‘hypothesis-free’ approaches already been, and are being developed). This process (i.e. from generating the hypothesis to data collection to analysis to publication of results) usually takes years, even with some of the brightest people collaborating and working full-time on a research question.

 

The first time you do something, it’s science. The second time, it’s engineering. A third time, it’s just being a technician. I’m a scientist. Once I do something, I do something else.” – Cliff Stoll in his TED talk (Feb 2006)

 

Natural scientists take great pride in exploring nature (living and non-living) and the laws that govern it in a creative, objective and transparent way. One of the most important characteristics of publications in the natural sciences is repeatability of the methods and replication of the results. I do not want to paint a picture where everything is perfect with regards to the literature in the natural sciences, as there has always been, and will be, problems in the way some research questions have been tackled (e.g. due to poor use of statistical methods, over-sensationalisation of results in lay media, fraud, selective reporting, sad truth of ‘publish or perish’, unnecessary number of co-authors on papers). However science evolves through mistakes, being open-minded about accepting new ideas and being transparent about the methods used. Natural scientists are especially blessed with regards to there being many respectable journals (with relatively high impact factors, 2 or more reviewers involved in the peer-reviewing process) in virtually all fields within the natural sciences, where a large number of great scientific papers are published; and these have clearly (positively) affected the quality of life of our species (e.g. increasing crop yield, facilitating understanding of diseases and preventive measures, curative drugs/therapies, underlying principles of modern technology).

I wrote all the above to come to the main point of this post: I believe the abovementioned ‘experiment-centric’ (well-designed, statistically well-powered), efficient (has real implications) and reliable (replicable and repeatable) characteristics of the studies carried out within the natural sciences should be made more use of in (and probably become a benchmark for) the social sciences. There should be a more stringent process before a paper/book is published similar to the natural sciences, and a social scientist must work harder (than they are doing at current) to alleviate their own prejudices before starting to write-up for publication (and not get away with papers which are full of speculation and sentences containing “may be due/related to”). I am not even going to delve into the technicalities of some of the horrendously implemented statistical methods and the bold inferences/claims made as a result of them (e.g. correlations/associations still being reported as ‘causation’, P-values of <0.05 used as ‘proof’).

Of course there are great social scientists out there who publish some policy-changing work and try to be as objective as a human being can possibly be, however I have to say that (from my experience at least!) they seem to be a great minority in an ocean of bad sociologists. Social sciences seem (to me!) to be characterised by subjective, incoherent and inconsistent findings (e.g. due to diverse ideologies, region-specific effects, lack of collaboration, lack of replication); and a comprehensive quality control mechanism does not seem to be in place to prevent bad literature from being published. A sociologist friend had once told me “you can find a reference for any idea in the social sciences”, which I think sums up the field’s current state for me in one sentence.

 

The scientist is not a person who gives the right answers, he’s one who asks the right questions.” – Claude Lévi-Strauss, an anthropologist

 

Social sciences should not be the place where ones who could not (get the grades and/or) be successful in the natural sciences go to and get a (relatively) easier ride; and publish tens of papers/books which go insufficiently peer-reviewed, unread and uncited for life; but get a lecturer post at a university much quicker in relation to a natural scientist. Social scientists should not be any different from natural scientists with regards to the general aspects of research, so they should also spend years (just like most natural scientists) trying to develop their hypotheses and debunk their own prejudices; work in collaboration with other talented social scientists who will guide them in the right way; and be held accountable to a stringent peer-reviewing process before they can claim to have made a contribution (via books/papers) to their respective fields. Instead of publishing loads of bad papers, they should be encouraged to and concentrate on publishing fewer but much better papers/books.

Social sciences have a lot to offer to society (see the above figure about smoking for an example), but unfortunately (in my opinion) the representatives have let the field down. I believe universities and maybe even the governments all around the world should make it their objective to develop great sociologists by not only engaging them with the techniques used in the social sciences (and its accompanying literature), but also by funding them to travel to other laboratories/research institutions and get a flavour of the way natural scientists work.

 

Addition: For an academically better (and much harsher!) criticism of the social sciences than mines, see Roberto Unger’s interview at the Social Science Bites website (click on link).

moon-suit

Moon landing – a momentous achievement of mankind, and the natural sciences (and engineering)

PS: I must state here that I have vastly generalised about the social sciences; and mostly cherry picked and pointed out the negative sides. However every sociologist knows within them whether they really are motivated to find out the truth about sociological phenomena; and are not just in it for the respect that being an academic brings, or for the titles (e.g. Dr., Prof.). I personally have many respectable sociologist friends/colleagues myself (including my father) who are driven to understand and dissect sociological problems/issues and look for ways to solve real-life problems. They give me hope in that sense…

PPS: I am not an expert in the natural sciences nor in the social sciences. Just sharing my (maybe not so!) humble opinions on the subject matter as I get increasingly frustrated with the lack of quality I observe throughout the social sciences. Many of my friends/colleagues in the social sciences would attest to some or all of the things I stated above (gathering from my personal communications). I value the social sciences a lot and want it to live up to its potential in making our communities better…

Difference between the lung of a COPD patient and an unaffected one. Image taken from NHLBI website (click on image to access the source)

Difference between the lung of a COPD patient and an unaffected one. Image taken from the NHLBI website (one of the leading institutes in providing information on various diseases; click on image to access the source)

Many of us will either suffer or have a relative/friend who suffers from a disease called Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, click on link for details) which is a progressive respiratory disease characterised by decreasing lung function (struggling to inhale/exhale air, irreversible airflow obstruction), very likely accompanied by chronic infections. COPD has a prevalence of over 2% in the UK population (corresponding to approx. 1 million in the UK, probably a lower bound estimate due to many undiagnosed cases; this figure is approx. 16 million in the USA) and is currently the third biggest killer in the world (only behind cancers and heart-related diseases) – costing the lives of millions (in the USA alone, number of deaths attributed to COPD is over 100 thousand); and the health services, billions of pounds.

Contrary to the well-known genetic disorders such as Cystic Fibrosis and Huntington’s disease, which are diseases caused entirely by a person’s genetic makeup and caused by mutations in a single gene, COPD is a (very!) complex disease with many genes and environmental factors (e.g. smoking, pollutants) contributing to the development/progression of the disease. This complexity makes it much harder to dissect the causes and find potential (genetic) targets for cures or therapies. However, we do know that smoking is by far the biggest risk factor with up to 90% of those who go on to develop clinically significant COPD being smokers. But only a minority (<25%) of all smokers develop COPD, indicating the strong role genetics can play in the progression of this disorder. Also not all COPD patients are smokers (up to 25% in some populations), indicating that – at least in some patients – genetics can play a rather determining role. I must stress that all the statistics I provide here can vary considerably from population to population due to different lifestyles and genetic backgrounds.

I – together with a large group of collaborators – search for genetic predictors of lung function, which helps us to identify which individuals are more likely to develop the disease and potentially understand the underlying biology/pathology of respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma. To do this, we carry out what is called a genome-wide association study (GWAS, click on link for details), where we obtain the genetic data (millions of data points) from tens of thousands of COPD (or asthma) patients and ‘controls’ (people with normal lung function). To ensure that our results are not biased by different ethnicities, life styles and related individuals, we collect all the relevant information about the participants and make sure that we control for them in the statistical models that we use. GWASs have been extremely successful in the identification of successful targets for other diseases and have led to the field of Genetic Epidemiology (GE, click on link for details) to come to the fore of population-based medicine. GE requires extensive understanding of Statistics (needed to make sense of the very large datasets), Bioinformatics (application of computer software to the management of large biological data), Programming (needed to change data formats, manage very large data), Genetics (needed for interpretation of results) and Epidemiology (branch of medicine which deals with how often diseases occur in different groups of people, and why); thus requires inter-disciplinary collaborations.

GWAS results are traditionally presented with a Manhattan plot (due to its resemblance of the city's skyline) where the genetic variants corresponding to the dots above the top grey line (representing P values less than 5e-7 i.e. 0.0000005) are usually followed up with additional studies to validate their plausibility. Image taken from Wikipedia (click on image to access source)

GWAS results are traditionally presented with a Manhattan plot (due to its resemblance of the city’s skyline) where the genetic variants corresponding to the dots above the top grey line (representing P-values less than 5e-8 i.e. 0.00000005) are usually followed up with additional studies to validate their plausibility. Image taken from Wikipedia (click on image to access source)

The inferences we make from these studies can shed light in to which genes and biological pathways play key roles in causing COPD. We then follow up these newly identified genes and pathways to analyse whether there are molecules which could be used to target these and be potential drugs for treating COPD patients. Our results can be of immense help to Pharmaceutical companies (and ultimately to patients), as many clinical trials initiated without genetic line of evidence have failed, costing the public and these companies billions of pounds.

As smoking is the biggest risk factor for respiratory diseases like COPD, I am – also with the contribution of many collaborators – in the process of analysing whether some people are more likely to start smoking, stop after starting, and smoke more than usual when they start smoking. The results can have huge implications as many people struggle to stop smoking, and when they do, research suggests that up to 90% (figure differs between populations) of them start to smoke again within the first year after quitting. Smoking is not only a huge contributor to the risk of developing COPD, but also to lung (biggest killer amongst all cancers), mouth, throat, kidney, liver, pancreas, stomach and colon cancer (not an exhaustive list). In the UK alone, these cancers cause the slow and painful death of tens of thousands, alongside a huge psychological and financial burden on the families and public resources.

The “lung” and the short of it (stealing a phrase thought up by my colleagues at the University of Leicester, click on link to see who they are) is that COPD is a disease that is going to affect many of us, and any useful finding which leads to cures and/or therapies could increase the life years of COPD patients and affect the lives of thousands of people directly, and millions indirectly (e.g. families of COPD sufferers, cost to the NHS). Finding targets to help people stop smoking can potentially have even bigger implications as many continue to smoke, despite huge efforts and funding allocated to smoking prevention and cessation.

A nice TED talk about the world of Data science and Genetic Epidemiology

UoL TSoc Logo 2016

University of Leicester Turkish Society 2016 logo – Not used for financial gains (all our events are ‘not-for-profit’). However, it will be changed soon as it is an infringement of the University’s own logo (we did not realise at the time the logo was designed).

I am extremely proud to have had the chance to lead the University of Leicester Turkish Society for the 2016 season; and am grateful to the following committee members for their excellent work in organising some great events – especially our annual ‘Turkish Day’ event at the Queens Hall (University of Leicester):

President: A. Mesut Erzurumluoglu
Vice-President: Kevser Sevim
Secretary: Halil Ibrahim Egilmez
Treasurer: Turkan Ozkent
Event coordinator: Ufuk Barmanpek and Yasemin Alpdogan
IT Manager: Muhammet Ziya Komşul

More information about the Turkish Society can be found at the below links:

Website   Facebook   Twitter

Also feel free to contact us at leturkishsociety@gmail.com for any questions/enquiries. Thanks for your continued support!

8th Annual Turkish Day flyer

Our flyer for the 8th Annual Turkish Day (5th May 2016) event – which hundreds of students attended

University of Leicester Turkish Society Turkish Day 2016 (1)

Annual Turkish Day 2016 (05/05/16) – organised by the University of Leicester Turkish Society

University of Leicester Turkish Society Turkish Day 2016 (2)

Annual Turkish Day 2016 (05/05/16) – organised by the University of Leicester Turkish Society